With the end of colonialism and the Cold War, nearly a billion people in Africa were left with truly independent new nation states, some cut from whole cloth, standing up after centuries of foreign domination. In July, he had been stripped of power and taken prisoner, though the Italians feigned continued support of the Axis. When Lockheed U-2 spy plane flights over the island revealed that Soviet missile launchers were being installed, U.S. President John F. Kennedy instituted a naval blockade and publicly confronted the Soviet Union. 1920. This, in combination with the Soviet invasion of Japanese-controlled territory, convinced the Japanese government to surrender unconditionally. The United States provided aid to South Vietnam[200] and contributed to propaganda efforts against the North,[201] but was not directly involved until the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, passed in reaction to a supposed North Vietnamese attack upon American destroyers, brought the U.S. into the war as a belligerent. [80], By this time, the war was looking ever darker for Germany. [86] Here, they agreed upon a plan to divide post-war Europe. The Great Depression hit the world hard in the 1930s. Anti-semitism during the Great Depression was widespread as many were content to blame the Jews for causing the economic downturn. The west went to Britain, France, and the U.S. Post-war Germany would be split between the four, as would Berlin. [177] Through the efforts of Amílcar Cabral and others, the Portuguese colonies of Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe followed suit and achieved independence during the mid-1970s, in what was to be the last important wave of African decolonization. Check out Highbrow quiz to test your knowledge on most important historical events of the 20th century. [265][266] In poor nations, malaria and other diseases affected the majority of the population. Apple Launches The First iPhone We are sure some of you have friends you cannot even imagine without a … January 1, 2000 (The New Millennium) 2. In the first decades of the twentieth century, African Americans left, in greater and greater numbers, the southern states where they had been subject to economic abuses and outright intimidation. Famous political figures of the Twentieth Century. The first war was the Korean War, fought between People's Republic of China-backed North Korea and mainly United States-backed South Korea. 1. 1901 Queen Victoria dies. Despite having signed the non-aggression pact with Stalin, Hitler despised communism and wished to destroy it in the land of its birth. IBM, seeking to embrace the microcomputer revolution, devised its IBM Personal Computer (PC). [73] Then, on July 10, 1943, the Allies invaded Sicily, in preparation for an advance through Italy, the "soft underbelly" of the Axis, as Winston Churchill called it. Color TV was invented, the polio vaccine was discovered, Disneyland opened in California, and Elvis Presley gyrated his hips on "The Ed Sullivan Show." ", "WWI Centennial: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk", "From Amiens to Armistice: The Hundred Days Offensive", "First World War.com - Weapons of War: Machine Guns", "The U-Boat Campaign That Almost Broke Britain", "Remembering the day the first poison gas attack changed the face of warfare forever", "How Britain Invented The Tank In The First World War", "The National Archives Learning Curve | The Great War | Why was it hard to make peace? [252] Thanks to efforts from Al Gore, the Internet grew beyond its military role when universities and commercial businesses were permitted to connect their networks to it. Period: Jan 1, ... becomes the first man in history to set foot on the Moon. The offensive bogged down, and the entire 6th Army, considered the best of German troops, was trapped in Stalingrad. [3][4], In 1917, Russia ended hostile actions against the Central Powers after the fall of the Tsar. Women S History Milestones A Timeline. The bomb was 1,800 times as powerful as the one dropped on Hiroshima. They held the state above the individual, and were often responsible for some of the worst acts in history, such as the Holocaust Adolf Hitler perpetrated on European Jews, or the Great Purge Stalin perpetrated in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. [181][182] Some conflicts which aroused from these tensions, especially the Nigerian Civil War, the Second Congo War, the Second Sudanese Civil War and the Bangladesh Liberation War have been among the bloodiest wars of the 20th Century. [29] They could see nothing wrong with a strong Germany ready to take on the communist menace to the east. Following the Potsdam Declaration of July 26, where the Allies threatened "prompt and utter destruction" should Japan not surrender,[121] the decision was made to resort to the first use of atomic bombs. The Roaring '20s were a time of a booming stock market, speakeasies, short skirts, the Charleston, and jazz. [207] With the threat of U.S. retaliation gone, the North proceeded to violate the ceasefire and invaded the South with full military force. These wars also cost millions of lives and trillions of dollars. Hitler decided to help by sending in a few thousand troops, a Luftwaffe division, and the first-rate general Erwin Rommel. [155], Since the 1940s there were concerns about the rising proliferation of nuclear weapons to new countries, which was seen as being destabilizing to international relations, spurring regional arms races, and generally increasing the likelihood of some form of nuclear war. ... 3. April 12: Yury Gagarin of the Soviet Unio… [61], On June 22, 1941, Hitler attacked Stalin with the largest army the world had ever seen. [213] A "space race" between the two powers followed. How neuroscience principles can lead to better learning Nevertheless, it was one of the bloodiest battles of the war and the second costliest battle in the history of the American Army. Computer games were first developed by software programmers exercising their creativity on large systems at universities, but these efforts became commercially successful in arcade games such as Pong and Space Invaders. The world at the beginning of the century, "The war to end all wars": World War I (1914–1918), Information and communications technology, the second costliest battle in the history of the American Army, United States Army Forces in the Far East, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), "Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo | Century Ireland", "The Major Alliances of World War I Began as Hope for Mutual Protection", "Who was involved in the First World War? The 20th century began without planes, televisions, and of course, computers. [184] In March 1946, Winston Churchill gave a now famous speech while visiting Westminster College in the US which is usually credited as the first use of the term iron curtain to refer to the separation of Soviet and Western areas of influence in Europe:[185]. [64], Mussolini had launched an offensive in North Africa from Italian-controlled Libya into British-controlled Egypt. 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See what famous, interesting and notable events happened throughout history on April 20. It's easy to say the world wouldn't be where it is today without the significant [144] In many places, Jews had to walk past towns and villages on their way to work as slaves in German industry. World History of the 20th Century- Timelines of the major event during the 20th century- US, Europe, Afirca,South America and Asia [102] In March 1942, days before the surrender of the Philippines, general Douglas MacArthur, who came out of retirement to become commander of United States Army Forces in the Far East at the onset of the war, was forced to flee and narrowly escape to Australia. … New viruses such as SARS and West Nile continued to spread. The Japanese were expecting an attack and have been heavily fortifying the entire island for over a year. Each event recognizes the … Continuing to come nearer the main Japanese islands, on 1 April 1945 the US Marines mounted the largest amphibious assault of the Pacific Theater on the island of Okinawa. [221], In later decades, space became a somewhat friendlier place. Looking back, the groundbreaking events that shaped Black history may not seem all that shocking. Department of Defense reports released in 1980 will indicate that one of the weapons snagged in a tree and was only a final safety catch away from detonation. The creation of early warning systems put the control of these weapons into the hands of newly created computers, and they served as a tense backdrop throughout the Cold War. Other revolutionary movements of the decade included the Stonewall Riots and the beginnings of gay rights, the Women's Lib movement, and the continuing and growing civil rights movement. [19], Communism was strengthened as a force in Western democracies when the global economy crashed in 1929 in what became known as the Great Depression. The World Wars sparked tension between countries and led to the creation of atomic bombs, the Cold War led to the Space Race and creation of space-based rockets, and the World Wide Web was created. Penicillin successfully used to treat a first patient for septicaemia or blood poisoning (1942) 5. [66][67], After the winter, Hitler launched a fresh offensive in the spring of 1942, with the aim of capturing the oil-rich Caucacus and the city of Stalingrad. ", "Benito Mussolini & the Italian Fascism State", "Early Warnings: How American Journalists Reported the Rise of Hitler", "Hitler announces an Anschluss with Austria", "The Munich Agreement - archive, September 1938", "The Road to World War II: How Appeasement Failed to Stop Hitler", "Between the wars – failure of the young democracies", "The Spanish Civil War: A Trial Run for World War II", "BBC - History - World Wars: Invasion of Poland", "Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact: A 'honeymoon' for two dictators | DW | 23.08.2014", "Why Finland allied itself with Nazi Germany | Letter", "Britain's 'Phoney' Start To The Second World War", "1940: Churchill takes helm as Germans advance", "BBC - History - World Wars: The Norway Campaign in World War Two", "Swedish neutrality during the Second World War: tactical success or moral compromise? TIMELINE OF BRITISH 20TH CENTURY HISTORY. Following the 19th century, 20th-century events changed the world in unprecedented ways. Fourteen years ago, the International Astronomical Union decided that Pluto would … In the landmark case Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court made abortion legal, and the Watergate scandal reached its climax when President Richard Nixon resigned. [268] This prompted many nations to negotiate and sign the Kyoto treaty, which set mandatory limits on carbon dioxide emissions.[269]. [203][204] U.S. President Richard Nixon was elected partially on a promise to end the war. ", "On This Day: France Surrenders to Nazi Germany", "Réflexions sur l'efficacité militaire de l'armée des Alpes, 10-25 juin 1940", "Italy a burden on Hitler in World War II - World - Dunya News", "Italy Tried to Invade Greece in World War II. It also included hardships like the Boxer Rebellion and the San Francisco Earthquake. He insisted that the German army would force its way in. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. made his "I Have a Dream" speech. On September 8, the Italians formally surrendered,[75] but most of Italy not in Allied hands was controlled by German troops and those loyal to Mussolini's (Mussolini had been freed by German paratroopers) new Italian Social Republic, which in reality consisted of the shrinking zone of German control. The history of 20th century Ireland see's the Irish uprising, war for independence, and the partition of Ireland resulting in a long and bloody conflict. [111] The Allied victory achieved its stated goal of further severing oil supplied to the Japanese army, which was already struggling to fuel the remainder of its naval power. The Battle of Midway is widely considered the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign and has even been described as "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare"[106] The reasons usually given for the resounding victory are Japanese overconfidence in their own forces, poor planning and the intercepting of Japanese battle plans by the United States. Hitler did not occupy all of France, but about three-quarters, including all of the Atlantic coast, allowing Marshal Pétain to remain as dictator of an area known as Vichy France. ", Slouching Towards Utopia: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=20th-century_events&oldid=1012725250, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 March 2021, at 23:51. [62] Stalin had been warned about the attack, both by other countries and by his own intelligence network, but he had refused to believe it. Originally a nation of farmers, fishermen, loggers, and fur traders, the dawn of the 20th century saw a full-scale transformation of Canadian society. This new weapon was alone over 400 times as powerful as the weapons used against Japan. This division of spheres of influence would set up international diplomacy for Cold War that would dominate the second half of the century. Women S History Milestones A Timeline. Civil rights activists organize Mississippi Freedom Summer voter registration project. World War II officially began on September 1, 1939, when Hitler unleashed his Blitzkrieg, or lightning war, against Poland. Who Were the Democratic Presidents of the United States? Hitler remained in the city in a bunker under the Chancellery garden. In the words of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, December 7 is a “date that will live in infamy.” 70 years later, these words are as true as they were when they were first uttered. Other news in the 1930s included the disappearance of aviator Amelia Earhart over the Pacific, a wild and murderous crime spree by Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, and the imprisonment of Chicago mobster Al Capone for income tax evasion. [223][224] In the 1990s, work on the International Space Station began, and by the end of the century, while still incomplete, it was in continual use by astronauts from the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, and Canada. After World War II, most of the European-colonized world in Africa and Asia gained independence in a process of decolonization. [136], The Nazis took a sadistic pleasure in the death camps; the entrance to the most notorious camp, Auschwitz, stated "Arbeit Macht Frei"—"Work Sets You Free". There were an amazing number of cultural firsts in the '20s, including the first talking film, Babe Ruth hitting his home-run record of 60 home runs in a season, and the first Mickey Mouse cartoon. Eastern Poland (incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR),[186] Latvia (which became the Latvian SSR), Estonia (which became the Estonian SSR), Lithuania ( which became the Lithuanian SSR),[187] part of eastern Finland (which became the Karelo-Finnish SSR)[188] and eastern Romania (which became the Moldavian SSR)[189] were now wholly part of Soviet Union. [128] The Nazis used propaganda to great effect to stir up anti-Semitic feelings within ordinary Germans. [175], In Africa, nationalists such as Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana led their respective nations to independence from foreign rule. 2000s 2001. This brought about new concerns surrounding intellectual property issues. [101], The next six months were dominated by Japanese victories against the Allied forces, already war-weary and stretched thin after two years of war in Europe and North Africa. In starting World War II, the Germans had unleashed a new type of warfare, characterized by highly mobile forces and the use of massed aircraft. But the decade also saw its fair share of tragedy, including the Oklahoma City bombing, the Columbine High School massacre, and the genocide in Rwanda. [85], In early February 1945, the three Allied leaders, Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, met at newly liberated Yalta in the Crimea in the Soviet Union in the Yalta Conference. The top news event of the 20th century was written in the ashes of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where the terrifying power of America's new atomic bomb brought World War II to an end in 1945. 15 Most Important Historical Events That Changed The World Forever. [214] Although the USSR reached several important milestones, such as the first craft on the Moon (Luna 2)[215] and the first human in space (Yuri Gagarin),[216] the U.S. pulled ahead eventually with its Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs, which culminated in Apollo 11 astronauts landing on the moon on 20 July 1969. [122] On 9 August, the Soviet Union also invaded Manchukuo in what was to be the last campaign of the war. [131] As barbaric and inhuman as this seems, it was too slow and inefficient by Nazi standards. Of course, you can also add any events that aren't already on the list. I focused in the events which had most effects on the people life and changed the world maps. After the French withdrawal from its former colony, on 21 July 1954, Vietnam became partitioned into two halves, much like Korea, along the 17th parallel. [183], During the Yalta Conference, where the Western, capitalist powers, and the communist Soviet Union agreed on separate spheres of influence in Europe, they set up the stage for a geopolitical rivalry that would dominate international relations for the next five decades. ; September 11 attacks: Al-Qaeda terrorists crash planes into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, and the Pentagon in Washington, DC.A fourth plane is downed on the outskirts of Stonycreek Township, Pennsylvania; 2,996 people die in the attacks. Other companies, starting with Compaq, reverse engineered the BIOS and released PC compatible computers that soon became the dominant architecture. The organization was never given enough power to overcome the conflicting interests and priorities of its member nations. Similarly, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the Vietnam War and the Apollo 11 moon landing stand out on Baby Boomers’ list of major historic events that occurred in their lifetimes. [53][54], Hitler now turned his eyes on Great Britain, which stood alone against him. [226] Its arms race with the U.S. was draining the country of funds, and further weakened by internal pressures, ethnic and political. The celebration of the ending of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century was at New Year's Day, 2000. The war had provided a stimulus for industry and for economic activity in general. As perhaps the greatest team of the 20th century, ... Now the NFL Draft is a prime-time event and one of the most important days of the sports ... Hank Aaron's Historic Day. [94] This, in turn, led to a further escalation of the hostilities, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War, one of the deadliest conflicts in human history. [26], When Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, a new variant of fascism called Nazism took over Germany and ended the German experiment with democracy. 1961 The battleship USS North Carolinais berthed at Wilmington and opens as a museum and war memorial. [165] Oddly, these two Axis powers, despite military occupation, soon rose to become the second (Japan) and third (West Germany) most powerful economies in the world. 20th Century American History for Kids includes: Thus, the idea that the existing system could be reformed by government intervention in the economy, rather than by continuing the laissez-faire approach, became prominent as a solution to the crisis. A common joke goes, "If you remember the '60s, you weren't there." The 1940s also witnessed the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi and the beginning of apartheid in South Africa. By August 1942, the Allied forces were on the offensive, earning victories in the New Guinea campaign at Guadalcanal, Milne Bay and Buna-Gona. [110] In later October, a combined attack of American and Australian forces took on the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Battle of Leyte Gulf in what was to be the largest naval battle of World War II and possibly the largest naval battle of all time. [48] The debacle in France also led to one of the war's greatest mysteries, and Hitler's first great blunder, Dunkirk, where a third of a million trapped British and French soldiers were evacuated by not only British war boats, but every craft the army could find, including fishing boats. In this article, you will find a list of the most important inventions of this century that have made our life easier and comfortable. 3344 na history sp 03 25 moments that changed america turning points from the 20th century time decade by timeline of the 20th century 70 historic moments from the 1970s great 20th century inventions from 1900 to 1949. The first organ transplant (1954) 3. 20th century, the major medical model of disease was ascribed to faith, random events or other supernatural activities. The 1900s also saw the burgeoning of the silent movie industry (Georges Melies' 400th film "A Trip to the Moon" was made in 1903) and the teddy bear. [82], In France, the Allies took Normandy and finally Paris on August 25. Recently arrived troops from the east under the command of Marshal Georgy Zhukov counterattacked the Germans and drove them from Moscow. [56] The switch came after a small British bombing force had attacked Berlin. Follow the changes in this decade-by-decade timeline of the 20th century. "A Timeline of the 20th Century." Rommel, who was now in charge of defending France against possible Allied attack, thought the Allies would not attack during the stormy weather, and was on holiday in Germany. Indeed, the Soviet Union have already annexed several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics during the war. 25 historians pick a surprising list of 20th-century turning points. [92] After the League of Nations commissioned the 1932 Lytton Report, which exposed the Mukden Incident as a Japanese ruse, Japan was left internationally isolated, withdrawing from the League of Nations in March 1933. The Italians, most of whom did not really support the war, had already turned against Mussolini. Terrorism, dictatorship, and the spread of nuclear weapons were other issues requiring attention. [146], During the 1930s, innovations in physics made it apparent that it could be possible to develop nuclear weapons of incredible power using nuclear reactions. All this came too late to save Hitler. However, this advance came too late in the war to have any real effect. While at first the United States held a monopoly on the production of nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union, with some assistance from espionage, managed to detonate its first weapon (dubbed "Joe-1" by the West) in August 1949.

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